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Cũ 23-01-2009, 13:03
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Arowana introduction & information

Arowana introduction & information

Hôm nay cuối năm em rảnh, không còn việc gì làm nên ra quán Cafe lướt Web chơi. Em xin post bài viết của một Blogger ở bên nước ngoài cho các Bros tham khảo thêm. Enjoying.....


I. Arowana introduction:
Arowana fishes has been known for many years. they are the king of tropical fish. Asian tropical fishes are very well liked and longed by all hobbyist so that the market price is stable and tend to increase over time. Why is This so? Beacuse arowanas are difficult to breed and one breeder can only produce 30 to 60 fishes and not all breeder will produce eggs. So there is thendency that demand is greater than supply. Furthermore, the natural environment that is required for breeding arowanans only exist in few asian countries, mainly in indonesia.

Is arowana still in their natural habitat? It is difficult to answer. If still exist, we migth not see them, because of its scarcity. Currently, arowanas can only be seen in the farm for breeding, some farms has produced up to F5 to avoid its extinction.

Arowana super red are originally from lake Sentarum, This lake flow into kapuas river located in West Borneo. There are a lot of arowana farms, small into big farms. Super red arowana is the hardest to breed outside its habitat. Golden Mahato arowana was originally from Siak river in Pekanbaru. It has gold color scales and at glace is similar to Cross Back Golden Malaysia. These two are Indonesian arowana trademark, which are very sought after by all arowana fans in Indonesia and Worldwide.

Some Indonesian arowanas include super red, red tail golden, golden mahato, banjar red, and green arowana. Indonesian tropical climate is very suitable for arowana breeding. water is the most critical element in arowana breeding, water source is not a problem in indonesia. Eg, there is kapuas river "The Natural Habitat Arowana" in Kalimantan and Riau, there are a few small river, so water source is widely avaliable.

a few countries who are the main market for indonesian arowana production : Japan, China, Thaiwan, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysian and Korea.

there is no doubt, arowana are indonesia's pride that we have to preserve; as indonesia is the biggest arowana produce in the world. . .(Indo Dragon)


II. How to select the good criteria of Arowana.

Before going specifically into some color varieties, we recommend the following guidelines for a basic selection of the Asian Arowana. All criteria are important.


(1) Swimming posture is amongst some of the important features when selecting an Arowana.

Good swimming posture, coupled with stunning colors is the main reason why so many people are attracted to Arowana. It is the only mode of channel that the Dragon Fish can exhibit its grand and majestic beauty with. A good swimming posture is one with ease and effortless; turning should be smooth, graceful and at a moderately slow speed. At all times, its body should be straight, horizontal and at the top portion of the waters. When swimming, the front portion (including the head) of the body should remain stable and only the back portion (including the tail) demonstrates a wavy motion and in a gliding manner. Overall, swimming postures should be smooth and flexible as opposed to one that is stiff and jerky. A fish that swims with its head moving is probably a sick fish. A fish that swims with its body at an angle probably has a swimming bladder problem and such.


2. Body Shape is another important area. A nice body shape refers to one that is broad, and proportionate with large fins and a pointed mouth.

Apart from Chili Red, generally select an arowana with a little slope between its head and its back. A broad body shape is an important aspect to the overall beauty of this fish, since it enhances the value of the fish with its massive appearance and great body. Compared to its Red counterpart, the Cross Back Golden's body shape is generally less proportionate. The Cross Back have bigger head and eye, shorter body and smaller fins as compared to the Red Arowana. As for Chili Red, spoon-headed shape with a very wide body is preferred since it gives a prosperous and forceful look.


(3) Tail / Fins should be big and proportionate to the body shape of the fish.

Fins must be fully wide open when swimming and both pectoral fins must be widespread. Avoid choosing any fish with prolonged clamped fins. Fins color must be dark and strong with smooth even hard fin rays. The Cross Back Golden finnage is generally smaller as compared to the other species. Take note of this when making a selection.


4. Barbels should be strong, straight, of equal length, pointing upwards and opens up like a Chinese Character Eight.

Most importantly, the barbels should not be crooked and damaged anywhere near the root. The ideal color of the barbels is of the same color as its body and this is especially true for the Super Red arowana. Strong and long barbels indicate good conditions of the fish.


5. Eyes should be proportionate to the overall size and shape of the body with each eye completely clear and of the same size and shape as the other.

The black portion of the eyes should be just right in size, relative to the overall size of the eyes and avoid choosing a fish with overly protruding eyes. Generally, the Cross Back Golden will have bigger eyes.


6. Mouth / Lips of arowana should be closed tightly without any kind of gap.
Any kind of protruding of upper lip or lower lip is disastrous if too obvious. As a feature of Dragon Fish, the mouth should be considerably large, up-pointing, proud and arrogant looking.

7. Scales should be bright, distinctive from one another, as large as possible, neatly arranged and not crooked.

8. Gill Cover should be smooth and flat to its body.
It should be radiant looking. Edge of gill should be circular in shape and gill motions should not be too obvious when the fish is breathing.


Cross Black Golden

Generally, a good quality Cross Back Golden will have scales that are reflective, glittering, large, neat and distinctive. This is especially obvious when compared to a Red Tail Golden. A good Cross-Back arowana should have its golden color reaching its fifth row of scales. (6 inches or slightly smaller). The distinct neatness of its scales must be prominent even at first sight.

For a good Blue Based Cross-Back, apart from the above mentioned, it is important for a Cross-Back Golden to have a deep and prominent blue shine that appears on the whole of the scales rather than just on the rims of the scales. Also, the darker the overall colors, the better the chance of getting a Blue Based type. As for the other Golden-Based type, it is usually lighter in overall color and has clear golden rims when young.

Another area of concern among hobbyists is the frame thickness (rims of the scales). There is no definite answer to whether a thin or thick frame is better; it is up to individual preference. Blue-based variety generally possesses thin frames while golden-based variety have thick frame. On the whole, thin frames are more popular, especially in Japan and thus cost more.

A good quality Cross-Back should also have gill-plates and scales that are both bright and smooth with hints of potential gold color at the mouth and lines near the eyes. Best quality Cross-Backs will also see its scales “touching” the top row as early as 6 inches and it can be seen especially at the region near the dorsal fins of the fish and with clearly defined scales near the tail portions.

Cross-Back Golden Arowanas also have a larger head and a shorter body as compared to all other Asian Arowanas. In fact, it is due to this difference in shape that some Cross-Back Golden Arowanas appear to be more stiff and rigid when swimming around the tank.


Red Arowana (Super Red)

As a basic rule of thumb, the redder the finnage, the higher the chance that the fish is a good Super Red. The fins should be deep red in color and distributed evenly on all fins. Despite this, some young red arowanas that have very red fins initially will see its redness fading progressively to light brownish and its scales to light yellow color once the fish reaches 12 inches. Therefore, choosing a good Red based on red fins does not always guarantee that the fish will turn up red in color eventually. It is thus important to look at other selection criteria like the overall body color and the shines at the scales. Red arowanas that have a stronger overall coloration and darker top are also better choices as it is a sign of a foundation of a good red arowana. From experience, higher grade red also tends to have metallic shine that is more outstanding and prominent as compared to a lower grade red arowana. This is especially obvious when both fish are taken out of water and viewed under direct sunlight.


Within the Super Reds, young Chili Reds have more metallic shines while the Blood Reds are glittering. The scales of Chili Reds have more prominent green core than the latter. Young Blood Reds are rounder and fuller in shape while Chili Red appear higher, spoonhead and not as round. Both Blood Reds and Chili Reds have sharper looking head and pointed mouth.

Being one of the leading ornamental fish importers and exporters, one of the philosophy of our farm is to provide hobbyists with the best quality arowanas. We are able to achieve this through very stringent selection criteria, basing on parentage, for instance. The bloodlines of our fish are the results of 2-3 generations of selective breeding technique of the best desired red-colored arowanas. Through generations of reproduction, the red genetics of these fishes are further enhanced and stabilized. Hobbyists can thus be assured of what they are getting. High quality Super Reds normally develop patches of rusty color, pinkish brown color or pinkish color around the gill cover and the rim of scales when reaching 12" - 14". If the gill cover shows only pale yellow or golden color, such fish will have limited potential to turn red and it is mostly orange or golden red type.

It is very common for an inexperienced hobbyist to get cheated and ended up with a 1.5 grade or 2 grade red instead of a genuine red arowana. The important point here is that never be tempted by the cheaper price as “good things never come cheap”. The differences between these fish are in terms of the color of the finage, shine and the base color of the scales. 1.5 grade red normally has more prominent yellow, green colored scales, coupled with a very plain and silverish shine. Some may even have pinkish scales due to excessive feeding of high carotenoid food or hormones that make the fish look redder in color. Another very good way to distinguish a genuine red arowana from a 1.5 grade red is that most genuine red arowanas have prominent dark vertical patterns on all three back fins. Note that this is not to be confused with the dark hardrays of some 1.5 grade red whereby these dark hardrays appear on the outer areas of the tail as well.


Red Tail Golden

Choosing a Red Tail Golden is similar to that of Cross-Back Golden. Red Tail Golden may appear in blue-based, gold-based and greenish-based; in our opinion, the best Red Tail Golden is one that have a deep golden color that reaches the fifth row eventually. Such Red Tail Goldens, when young normally have a moderately strong overall color that is nether too dark or too light. Hints of golden color are obvious at the gill-plates and rims of the scales even as young as 6 inches. This golden color will certainly flourish as the fish grows older and will be clearly evident once the fish is between 12 to 14 inches. All the fins of a good quality Red Tail Golden should be dark red in color.
Despite many similarities between Red Tail Golden and Cross-Back Golden, there are still some differences. Red Tail Golden has a smaller head, longer body and generally bigger in size when matured.


Green Arowana

Widely dispersed among South East Asian countries. Thus Greens from various regions may appear quite different, but on the whole, the shape of the head is rounder and mouth not as pointed. Good young Green Arowana is one that exhibits green color throughout the body with nice bluish shine at the 4th and 5th level scales. The best quality Green Arowanas are those with purplish tinge at the core of scales.


III.Things to do when Arowana is first brought home
Many first time Dragon Fish hobbyist has the fright of their life when the fish die on them, minutes or hours after they are introduced to the new tank at home. Dragon Fish is considered to be a hardy fish but when subject to sudden changes of water condition, it can be fatal. Apart from acquiring healthy fishes from reputable aquarium shop or farm, hobbyist should also take additional measures as follows:

1. Prepare tank with well-aerated over-night water.

This allows the dissipation of chlorine which is harmful to the fish when in excess amount, into the air. Should there be any time constraint in the tank set-up, anti-chlorine solution is available commercially and can be found in most aquarium shop.

2. To maintain a low level of water which is sufficient for the Dragon Fish to swim freely.

When transported, fish are usually stressed and vunerable to diseases the result of an affected immunity system. Low water level prevents the fish from exerting itself and help the fish to rest.
3. Do not use strong filtration system which cause water to be turbulent.

Allow the fish to rest at the bottom of the tank.

4. Use a water heater set at 30 C.

This is to maintain a constant water temperature and to kill bacteria which cannot tolerate that temperature range. Any frequent temperature fluctuation will further subject the fish to stress and can be fatal. Gill curling is often the result of this condition.

5. Very low aeration to maintain constant water temperature.

Though with water heater in placed, high aeration will introduce external air temperature into the water and cause the work of water heater to be ineffective. This should be observed especially when the tank is located in an air-conditioned environment. Do not introduce the Dragon Fish into the tank immediately. Place the bag containing the fish into the tank and allow heat transfer to take place to achieve a same temperature between the water in the bag and the water in the tank. Release the fish into the tank after 15 to 20 minutes.

6. Feeding of food should be done 2-3 days after the Dragon Fish has been introduced to the new tank, when the fish has adapted to the new environment.

The fish is stressed when transported and introduced into a new water condition. The fish will experience poor digestion. Early feeding will further stress the fish and lower the immunity system. Also the uneaten food will foul the water and promote the multiplication of bad bacteria.

7. Overfeeding of food should be avoided.

Once per day will be sufficient. When the fish health is in stable condition after a few weeks, the feeding frequency can be increased to twice per day. Any uneaten food should be scooped out to prevent the fouling of water.
viii) Frequent water change in moderate amount is recommended. 10 to 20 percent water change each week will do. Any greater amount will subject the fish to shock resulting in stress that can be fatal.


IV.How to make arowana love you
now, it's no impossible to make your arowana to be your friend.
the question is how? how to do that?
this is the answer:

1. feed them everyday by your self

you have to feed the arowana everyday frequently. (read How to make arowana look great ).
but, before you feeding your fish, you have to give the signal.

example:
wave your hand in the water.

2. feed them slowly

slowly in this section is give the food 1 by 1.
if your fish dont want to eat , you have to hide in the place that the fish can't see you. because some how wild arowana don't want if people see them when eating.
so, after the fish already eat, you can see them again until the fish want to eat in front of you.

but, we have an optional.( maybe this one is to barbar.)
you can fast your fish for 2 or 3 days.
then give them food in front of you.

3. stroke the arowana

now, after the arowana had already want to near you, just stroke it slowly.

you can give the food in the water if you can already stroke it gently.

don't try to pull the tail of the arowana. they don't like it very much.


so, this is the end
have a nice try.


V.Bring the Luck
Asian arowanas are considered "lucky" by many people, particularly those from Asian cultures. This reputation derives from the species' resemblance to the Chinese dragon, considered an auspicious symbol. The large metallic scales and double barbels are features shared by the Chinese dragon, and the large pectoral fins are said to make the fish resemble "a dragon in full flight."

In addition, positive Feng Shui associations with water and the colours red and gold make these fishes popular for aquariums. One belief is that while water is a place where chi gathers, it is naturally a source of yin energy and must contain an "auspicious" fish such as an arowana in order to have balancing yang energy. Another is that a fish can preserve its owner from death by dying itself.

VI.Arowana disease, diagnosis, and treatment
1. Frighty/Loss of Appetite

This is very common problem. All arowana keepers will run into this problem at one time. The cause(s) are often not clear and unspecific. Proper tender loving is very important. Should any cause be identified, immediate action is advisable.



Large water change mean 50% of conditioned water change. Make sure all the parameters of the new water is adjusted identical to the tank water, esp. temperature and pH. It is then followed by 30% water change every 2-3 days until the fish condition improved or the water quality improved.
To reduce stress of arowana, you may cut some black garbage bag into strips and put weight on one end. Make sure you wash the strips before using them. They will act like artificial plants that create refuge area for the arowana. Remove them gradually when condition improved.
Overfeeding is often a problem. When they are over feed continuous for weeks or months, they start to lose appetite and refuse eating, the appetite will come back, just cut down the feeding.
After arowana was frighten, it is not uncommon for them to loss appetite for a while. This sometimes last for days or even weeks. It is important to identified the cause of the flightiness and delineate it. At the same time, give the fish a calm environment and tender loving care. Staying in front of the tank frequently make the fish get use to you and adapt to the environment faster. The fish will also develop a bond to you if you do it often.


2. Dropeye

This is not a disease, it is most probably cause by change of nature to captive environments which encourage the fish to look side and down rather then up. The 2nd most popular hypothesis is overfeeding. Genetic is the biggest factor in this problem.



Prevention is better than cure. Get a low tank. Avoid overfeeding, use floating food if possible. But most importantly do not buy the fish is you suspect dropeye.
There are other propose treatments for this problem. They included, adding ping pong ball and red flashing light into and above the tank respectively, putting a tank of cricket above the tank, pushing the eye back manually, operation, etc. I do not recommend the last three methods as they have high mortality rate.

3. Cloudy Eye

As the name suggested, a film of white converging form over the cornea of the eye due to various reasons. Majority of them are mild and do not need antibiotic. However this condition must be treated seriously as its high morbidity and possible mortality should condition got worst.



Cloudy eyes usually take days to heal except infective cause, which might take weeks to month with or without permanent damage. Infective cause of cloudy eye without preceding insult is uncommon. It occur only if the fish general condition is very bad. Although nutritional cause of cloudy eye is not proven in arowana, it is theoretically possible.

4. Gill Curl

In this condition, the gill cover of the arowana curl outward, initially involving only the solf part of the cover and later the hard gill cover. If the cause is not removed, condition will get worst, gill will get exposed, causing breathing difficulty and making the gill prone to infection. The end result could be fetal.



When only the soft portion of the gill cover is involve and problem noticed early, conservative management might be possible. However, when the hard portion of the gill cover is involved, the condition is not reversible without surgery. Surgery is done under analgesia. The curled portion of the gill is either trimmed out or multiple perpendicular(toward head) cuts is made on it.
There is a 3rd hypothesis on the cause of gill curl. Infection of the inner membrane is believed to be the cause in this hypothesis. Infection cause the inner membrane to swell and push the gill to curl outward(just like wetting the sticky side of stamp). More research is needed to prove this hypothesis.

5. Head-rot Syndrome

This is a very unique syndrome affecting more on Asian Arowanas then its Australian and South America counterpart, it is also more common in younger arowanas. In this syndrome, the head of the fish start to get oedematous(swollen) followed by a layer peeling off from the skin, starting from the front of the head and moving backward.



Activated carbon is believe to be the cause due to its close association with the syndrome. It is thought that activated carbon removed vital element in the water and hence disallow the head tissue to form normally. Other hypothesis around include irritation by the microscopic carbon particle deposited on the head. Healing is usually complete and occur within days when carbon is removed. Zeolite product could cause similar problem too but less severe and less common. Large arowana is less sensitive Head-rot Syndrome.

6. Tail-drop Syndrome

This is the sudden, clean breaking of rays of fins(esp. ventral and tail) which appear like being cut. This usually occur when the fish is under tremendous stress, e.g. jumping out of tank. It is believes by some a natural mechanism for the fish to break away from the predator when caught. similar to tail-dropping mechanism of some lizard.



Unfortunately, when this happen, the chance of the fin recovering to its original beauty is slim. Even when the breaking gap is not visible, the broken rays will atrophy and end up slightly smaller and shorter than the others. On the other hand, if the broken fin drop out spontaneously or cut out, the chance of a visible band in regenerated fin is high. In this situation, it is not uncommon that keeper choose to re cut the whole fin and wish for the fin to grow back more even. But then, the outcome is again unpredictable.
It is important to provide good water condition during the recovery phase to promote healing and prevent infection. Feed the fish good balance diet, add 0.3% salt & acraflavine and do more frequent water change. Healing take months.

7. Fin Membrane Tear

Unlike Tail-Drop Syndrome, the tear is between the fin rays and run parallel to the rays.



This is common and quite benign. They heal fast, sometime within days. X back golden is especially prone to this.

8. Broken Barble

Arowana is a fish with great force, it is not uncommon for the fish injured by its own force while darting around. Barble is important part of arowana as many believe it signified the horn of the dragon. Hence it is important for arowana to have perfect barble. Regeneration of barble occur from the base of the barble. If this area is also injured, the damage could be permanent.



If the base of barble is not injured, full recovery can be expected. Barble can be cut near the edge and allow it to regenerate. If the base is injured or the cut barble do not regenerate, a sterile needle puncturing the base just enough to cause bleeding can be done to stimulate growth. It is sometime good ideal to cut both barble rather than only the broken one so that they can grow out symmetrically.
It is important to provide good water condition during the recovery phase to promote healing and prevent infection. Feed the fish good balance diet, add 0.3% salt & acraflavine and do more frequent water change. Avoid small tank which will result contant rubbing of the barble onto the glass. This might result in deformed barble. Sign of regeneration can be seen in about 2 weeks time, full recovery take months.

9. Dropped Scale

Whole piece of scale or scales drop off following physical injury.



Regeneration of the scale is fast and take only days to weeks. However, it takes months for the color of the new scale to catch up with the rest. The is a chance that the scale might look different in color compare to the rest.



VII.
How to make arowana look great
Arowana is not a difficult fish to keep. After all, it has survived through millions of years until man came into its way. All you need is to spend one to two hours per week taking care of it and you will have years of enjoyment watching this beautiful fossil dragon swimming in your aquarium.

1. Check Water Condition

pH : Although arowana can withstand a reasonable range of pH, they should be kept in water that is slightly acidic or neutral. Make sure you check you pH regularly, especially if you have something in your setup that will altered pH, e.g. peat, CO2 system(in planted aquarium), etc.



Temperature : Water temperature should be maintained at between 26C-30C(79F-86F). Avoid sudden change of temperature as it may chock the fish can cause problem like tail dropping. Although arowana can withstand higher temperature, this is not recommended especially if it is for long period of time. High temperature cause wrinkling of the gill cove and destroy the authentic look of the fish.


Hardness : Arowana like soft water but can also tolerate water with reasonable hardness.

2. Water Change Frequently

Arowana is carnivorous fish. they produce large amount of waste. High ammonia, nitrite and nitrate are common problem in arowana tank. Regular water change is the easiest way to deal with it. 1/4-1/3 water change per week is recommended, 20% twice a week is even better if you have the time. Make sure you adjust the temp and pH of the new water similar to the tank's. Sudden drop of temperature or pH is dangerous and could sometime proved to be lethal.

3. Feeding Time

Small arowana(below 15cm> should be fed three times a day, medium arowana<15-35cm)>



VIII.Kind of Arowana
Super red arowana

Several distinct, naturally occurring colour varieties are recognized, each found in a specific geographic region. They include the following:

• The green is the most common variety, found in Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Malaysia.

• The silver Asian (not to be confused with the silver arowana, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) is considered part of the green variety by some. It has two subvarieties, the "grey tail silver" or "Pinoh arowana," and the "yellow tail silver," each found in a different part of the island of Borneo in Indonesia.

• The red-tailed golden is found in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

• The gold crossback, blue Malayan, or Bukit Merah blue is native to the state of Pahang and Bukit Merah area in Perak, Malaysia.

• The red, super red, blood red, or chili red is known only from the upper part of the Kapuas River in western Borneo, Indonesia.

In 2003, a study was published which proposed breaking S. formosus into four separate species. This classification was based on both morphology and genetics, and includes the following species:

• Scleropages formosus was redescribed to include the strain known as the green arowana. The gold crossback, which was not part of the study, was included in this species by default.

• Scleropages macrocephalus described the silver Asian arowana.

• Scleropages aureus described the red-tailed golden arowana.

• Scleropages legendrei described the super red arowana.

Other researchers dispute this reclassification, arguing that the published data are insufficient to justify recognizing more than one Southeast Asian species of Scleropages.



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Đã có 2 thành viên gửi lời cảm ơn tới JoviSon020279 vì bài viết hữu ích này:
  #2 (permalink)  
Cũ 23-01-2009, 13:58
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Híc toàn tiếng Anh, botay.com.vn
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Cũ 23-01-2009, 15:43
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MÌNH TOÀN NGƯỜI VIỆT NAM MÀ BẠN TOÀN VIẾT TIẾNG GÌ , BẠN NÊN GIỮ BẢN SẮC DÂN TỘC MÌNH CHỨ !
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Cũ 23-01-2009, 18:11
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Đọc thì hiểu đấy nhưng mà dịch thì lâu lắm vì nó dài quá,cám ơn bác Jovison nhé hic hic
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Cũ 24-01-2009, 15:38
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Thanks các bạn. Nhưng tớ đâu có viết gì đâu chứ, cái náy là của một Bro ở bên nước ngoài mà....tớ chỉ copy lại thôi.
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